And We verily gave knowledge unto David and Solomon,
and they said: Praise be to Allah , Who hath preferred us above many of His believing slaves!
(Holy Qur’an, Surah an Naml 15)
10 And assuredly We gave David grace from Us, (saying):
O you hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise!
And We made the iron supple unto him,
(Holy Qur’an, Surah Sabah 10)
By 1000 CE the climate of the Middle East had began to become warmer and drier. There were large-scale population movements and many states, such as the Hittite civilization, collapsed. Even the Egyptian empire began to recede and new groups, such as the sea faring Philistines, began to gain ascendancy.
The Israelite tribes of Benjamin and Judah came into conflict with the Philistines over the possession of the Canaanite lands around Jerusalem, but Prophet David (possibly 1004-960′s BCE) lead the Monotheists to victory against their Pagan competitors. Prophet David (as) also oversaw the construction of the city of Jerusalem, which became known as the ‘City of David’. Jerusalem soon became the center of Israelite life, particularly after the Ark of the Covenant was transferred there.
The Prophet David (Da’ud (as) had been born in a humble but devout home, but he had a great future. David grew up during the reign of King Saul, the first king of the Israelites. According to the records of the Bani-Israel the Prophet Samuel (as) was directed by God to choose Saul and anoint him king, so that the believers could be united in the war against the Pagans. However Saul disobeyed the directions God was giving him through the Prophet Samuel and thus he lost his spiritual and moral mandate.
Like many of the Prophets David was a shepherd. He had much opportunity to develop his innate spirituality as well as develop in strength and skill. In those days the believers were engaged in a Jihad against the Idolaters. They were not fairing well in this struggle. The Idolaters had on their side a massive and seemingly invincible warrior called Goliath (Jalut).
David, although still a youth, joined the holy warriors and confronted the warrior Goliath. Goliath was heavily armed but all David required was a slingshot. David already had great skill with that weapon from his time in the desert, protecting the flock of sheep from the wolves and by God’s leave he killed Goliath with a single well aimed stone, which smashed into his skull. All at once David (as) had become a hero of the Bani-Israel.
Allah gave him the kingship and taught him great knowledge. It was through Prophet David (as) that God replaced Saul and defeated the idolaters, but his mission was far greater than that and he had a far more important mission that included the great Revelation of the Psalms (Zabur). He became the king of the tribes of Israel in around 1000 BCE.
After ruling from Hebron for six years he liberated Jerusalem and made it his capital, the capital of a strong believing Kingdom. Upon passing away he was succeeded in the leadership of Israel by his able son Solomon (as).
245 Who is it that will lend unto Allah a goodly loan,
so that He may give it increase manifold ?
Allah straitens and enlarges.
Unto Him you will return.
246 Bethink you of the leaders of the Children of Israel after Moses,
how they said unto a prophet whom they had:
Set up for us a king and we will fight in Allah ‘s way.
Would you then refrain from fighting if fighting were prescribed for you ?
Why should we not fight in Allah ‘s way when we have been driven from our dwellings with our children ?
Yet, when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, all save a few of them.
Allah is aware of evil-doers.
247 Their Prophet said unto them:
Lo! Allah has raised up Saul to be a king for you.
They said: How can he have kingdom over us when we are more deserving of the kingdom than he is,
since he has not been given wealth enough ?
He said: Lo! Allah has chosen him above you,
and has increased him abundantly in wisdom and stature.
Allah bestows His Sovereignty on whom He will.
Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.
248 And their Prophet said unto them:
Lo! the token of his kingdom is that there shall come unto you the ark
wherein is peace of reassurance from your Lord,
and a remnant of that which the house of Moses and the house of Aaron left behind,
the Angels bearing it.
Lo! herein shall be a token for you if (in truth) you are believers.
249 And when Saul set out with the army, he said:
Lo! Allah will try you by (the ordeal of) a river.
Whosoever therefore drink thereof he is not of me,
and whosoever tastes it not he is of me,
save him who take (thereof) in the hollow of his hand.
But they drank thereof, all save a few of them.
And after he had crossed (the river),
he and those who believed with him, they said:
We have no power this day against Goliath and his hosts.
But those who knew that they would meet Allah exclaimed:
How many a little company has overcome a mighty host by Allah ‘s leave!
Allah is with the steadfast.
250 And when they went into the field against Goliath and his hosts they said:
Our Lord! Bestow on us endurance,
make our foothold sure, and give us help against the disbelieving folk.
251 So they routed them by Allah ‘s leave and David slew Goliath;
and Allah gave him the kingdom and wisdom,
and taught him of that which He wills.
And if Allah had not repelled some men by others the earth would have been corrupted.
But Allah is a Lord of Kindness to (His) creatures.
252 These are the portents of Allah which We recite unto you (Muhammad) with truth,
and lo! you art of the number of (Our) messengers…
(from Holy Qur’an Surah Baqara)