Virtues in Sufism (virtue-Fadillah) represent all the desirable human qualities, characteristics and behaviours. Those who adopt good virtues develop good character through personal training and habituation. In this process the rational soul guides and trains the animal soul along healthy lines.
External (zahir) virtues include;
- performing the essential duties of the believer,
- following the Sunnah way of the Last Messenger (pbuh),
- living with good Adab (manners and behaviour),
- remembering God often,
- doing good deeds for one’s fellow creatures.
Inner (batin) virtues include;
- sincerity in good deeds and sincerity and focus in acts of worship,
- maintaining knowledge of Divine Law and thus knowing what God expects from us,
- maintaining a positive disposition,
- always remembering that there is only one God and there is nothing like him (this is called Tawheed),
- trusting in God (this is called Tawakkul),
- having awe of God (this is called Taqwa),
- repenting from sins (this is called Taubah),
- being patient (Sabr),
- being thankful to God (Shukr),
- hoping from God (Raja),
- fearing God (Khawf),
- loving God (this high virtue is called Mahabbah)
Wise spiritual teachers have explained that both inner and outer virtues should be sought by the one who wishes felicity in this life and the next.